Non classé

Monopolio Legal Y Natural

There are countless examples of this, but the most obvious are probably in the technology and audiovisual sectors. The paradigm shift that took place at the end of the last century displaced large natural monopolies, some of which were transformed, others simply declined in the wave of new, more efficient enterprises. The loss of social efficiency caused by monopolies led states to adopt trade regulations to eliminate restrictive practices as early as the last century. This type of regulation is constantly developing and is even included in international economic integration treaties of the EEC type. However, government practice appears to contradict the spirit of these regulations. Some monopolies also offer a number of benefits, diffusing some positive social effects, so they are approved by governments and even promoted and protected. In the telecommunications sector, the abolition of Telefónica`s natural monopoly in ± 1997 when the sector was liberalised, since it owned all cables reaching homes, was resolved by a law obliging Telefónica to provide services with its cables to competing companies. until companies can lay their own cables. Today, the wireless monopoly has disappeared because cables are not needed to provide telecommunications services. Although natural monopoly situations do© not necessarily have to be directly negative for the consumer, they are not in fact considered an optimal market situation.

In general, this has to do with the imperfections that dominance can create from a single commercial policy, both from the point of view of prices and from the point of view of the quality of services. Natural monopolies appear in basic public services (water, sanitation) and in the so-called network, energy, telecommunications and transport industries. That is, the supply of water, sanitation, gas, electricity and, in some cases, telephony. This also applies to infrastructure, roads, railways, airports, hydraulic dams, bridges, etc.[3] In this case, natural monopolies arise from the ability of firms to concentrate the market with adjusted or even decreasing production costs. Higher industrial capacity and more adequate infrastructure can enable cost adjustments and product reductions. It is also©the origin of many natural monopolies, especially in industry. Economies of scale in the transport sector constitute the existence of a natural monopoly. The nature of economies of scale suggests that these economies are based on the level of the transmission line and not on the entire system. This reinforces from the point of view of profitability the model of tenders in transport, since the existence of several operators is not economically inefficient, each has exclusivity in the connection of two nodes.

On the following pages, we analyze which model: tender or regulation is globally optimal. In the following video lecture, Professor Alfonso Rosa García vividly explains the concept of monopoly. In addition, the reasons why it is presented, how a market with a monopolistic structure works, what are its main characteristics, what are the consequences for consumers and what costs the company incurs when it is presented, among other concepts. (8 videos – 1 hour 5 minutes) In the electricity sector, it is more complicated to break the natural monopoly, because it is not possible to transmit energy wirelessly to homes and businesses, moreover, the creation of an electricity©distribution network©in a village is difficult and©expensive, but not impossible. In Europe, there are projects where they have allowed it to succeed, but in ± Spain, the IDAE (Institute for Diversification and Energy Conservation), which is responsible for the legislation of the sector, is not made for work. In the vast majority of industries, marginal costs are falling due to economies of scale. A natural monopoly has a distinct cost structure with huge fixed costs, but constant, fixed and low marginal costs. Strictly speaking, an enterprise is a monopoly if it is the sole supplier of a homogeneous product for which there are no substitutes and which has many customers.