According to the Death Penalty Information Center, the death penalty is in force in 27 states, but some do not actually apply it. In seven states, governors or courts have officially halted executions. While governor-imposed moratoriums are in effect in Oregon, California and Pennsylvania, judges have suspended executions in Nevada, Montana, Tennessee and South Carolina, largely in response to controversy over new drugs used in injection executions. In the case of South Carolina, the state even approved the use of the electric chair and firing squad in response to growing scrutiny from pharmaceutical companies and the public on how filler drugs are purchased and used. The amendment has now been challenged in court, while executions are suspended. In addition, the U.S. government and military retain the death penalty. Proponents of the death penalty say deter crimes, is a good tool for prosecutors in advocacy, improves the community by eliminating recidivism by executed criminals, providing a « conclusion » to surviving victims or relatives, and constituting a just sentence. Some supporters of the death penalty argue that « most of the rest of the world has long since abandoned human sacrifice. »  Yes, on the basis of laws; Governor Newsom imposed a moratorium on the death penalty starting in 2011. The death penalty was used by only 50 states in 2020. These were Alabama, Georgia, Missouri, Tennessee and Texas.
According to Amnesty International, government executions have taken place in only 20 of the world`s 195 countries. However, the federal government, which had not executed 16 years earlier, did so in 2020, under the impetus of Donald Trump and his candidate for Attorney General William Barr. Executions for various crimes, especially murder and rape, took place from the founding of the United States until the early 1960s. Until then, « no one but a few foreigners believed in the possibility of abolishing the death penalty through judicial interpretation of constitutional law, » according to abolitionist Hugo Bedau.  In November 2009, another Gallup poll found that 77% of Americans thought the mastermind of the September 11 attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, should be sentenced to death if convicted, 12 points higher than the general support for the death penalty in the last Gallup poll at the time.  A similar finding was found in 2001 when respondents were asked about the execution of Timothy McVeigh for the Oklahoma City bombing that killed 168 people.  In states where the death penalty is applied, the governor generally has the discretion to commute a death sentence or suspend its execution. In some states, the governor is required to obtain an advisory or binding recommendation from a separate body. In some countries, such as Georgia, the commission alone decides on clemency. At the federal level, clemency is vested in the President of the United States.  In October 2009, the American Law Institute voted to reject the framework for the death penalty, which it had created in 1962 as part of the Model Penal Code, « in the face of persistent institutional and structural obstacles to ensuring a minimally adequate system for the application of the death penalty. » In a study commissioned by the Institute, experience has shown that the objective of individualized enforcement decisions and the objective of systemic equity for minorities and others are incompatible.
 In 2017, 159 prisoners were acquitted on the basis of proof of innocence.    The frequency of executions also varies considerably across the country. Texas has killed 573 people since 1976, according to the Death Penalty Information Center. Virginia ranks second with 113 executions during that period, followed by Oklahoma with 112, Florida with 99 and Missouri with 90. Legal and political factors have played a prominent role in several states where the death penalty applies, but no executions have been carried out for 10 years or more. In California, courts struck down the state`s lethal injection protocol in 2006, and the state didn`t propose an alternative method until years later. In 2016, California voters approved a voting initiative to speed up the death penalty process, but Newsom said this week that no executions would take place in the state as long as he remained governor. Although fewer states allow executions as punishment for crimes, 24 of the 50 U.S. states still allow the death penalty, according to deathpenaltyinfo.org, and three others are temporarily suspended. Note that Colorado and New Hampshire have prospectively abolished the death penalty.
In Colorado, the governor commuted the sentences of death row inmates, but defendants whose cases were pending at the time of abolition are still entitled to execution and the implementing law is still in effect. In New Hampshire, one person is still on death row. Some argue that too many innocent people are unjustly accused and then sentenced to death. Others still believe that the saying « an eye for an eye » should be our guiding principle in criminal deterrence. Previous mass pardons after Furman took place in New Mexico in 1986, when Governor Toney Anaya commuted all death sentences for his personal opposition to the death penalty. In 1991, Ohio`s outgoing governor, Dick Celeste, commuted the sentences of eight prisoners, including the state`s four women sentenced to death. And during his two terms (1979-1987) as governor of Florida, Bob Graham, although a staunch supporter of the death penalty who had overseen the first involuntary execution after Furman and 15 others, agreed to commute the sentences of six people on the basis of doubts of guilt or disproportionality. Pardon, whereby the governor or president of the judiciary can unilaterally reduce or overturn a death sentence, is an executive rather than a judicial procedure.
 In 1977, the Supreme Court in Coker v. Georgia`s decision banned the death penalty for raping an adult woman. Previously, the death penalty for adult rape had been phased out in the United States, and at the time of the decision, Georgia and the U.S. federal government were the only two jurisdictions to retain the death penalty for this offense. Does California have the death penalty? The death penalty is a legal penalty in the state of California. Between 1778 and 1972, California carried out 709 executions. In 1972, the California Supreme Court struck down the state`s death penalty law in People vs. Anderson, who was reinstated by voters a few months later. In 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom announced a moratorium on executions in California, affecting 737 inmates on the nation`s longest death row. The last execution in California took place in January 2006 and the number of death row inmates increased by about 100. Over the past decade, several U.S. Supreme Court decisions have restricted the use of the death penalty in the United States.
The Court abolished the death penalty for mentally disabled offenders (Atkins v. Virginia, 2002), juvenile offenders (Roper v. Simmons, 2005), and those convicted of raping a child when death was not the intended or actual outcome (Kennedy v. Louisiana, 2008) – each decision declaring the execution of these individuals unconstitutional and violates cruel and unusual punishment. In addition, the court required jurors, not judges, to establish facts that qualify a defendant for the death penalty (Ring v. Arizona, 2002) and impose a death penalty (v. Florida, 2016). In the United States, the death penalty is legal in 27 states, American Samoa, the federal government and the military, and is abolished in 23 states.  In practice, the death penalty is only applied to aggravated murder. Although it is a legal sanction in 27 states, only 21 states have the capacity to carry out death sentences, with the other six as well as the federal government subject to different types of moratoriums. The existence of the death penalty in the United States dates back to the early colonial Virginia. Along with Japan, Taiwan and Singapore, the United States is one of four advanced democracies and the only Western country to make regular use of the death penalty.
     It is one of 54 countries in the world that use it and was the first to develop lethal injection as an execution method, which has since been adopted by five other countries.  The Philippines has since abolished executions, and Guatemala has done so for civil crimes, making the United States one of four countries that still use this method (along with China, Thailand, and Vietnam). It is common for convicts to be given tranquilizers before execution, regardless of the method used.    As of 20 May 2021, the Death Penalty Information Centre reports that there are 51 women on death row. Since 1976, 17 women have been executed, compared to 1,516 men during the same period.  There were no executions in the United States between 1967 and 1977.